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Pharmacologia Vol. 3 (11), 2012
Research Article
Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Extracts from the Leaves of Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae)
R.J.G.Temdie , L.A.Fotio , T.Dimo , J.G. Beppe and M. Tsague
Abstract: Markhamia tomentosa (Bignoniaceae) is used in Cameroonian traditional pharmacopeia for the treatment of painful and inflammatory related ailments. The present study was designed to assess the analgesic effects of different leaf extracts fractions of M.tomentosa on acetic acid and formalin-induced pain and the anti-inflammatory activities of the most active extract. The analgesic properties of different leaf extracts: Aqueous (AQ1), Hexane (HEX), Dichloromethane (DCM), Ethyl Acetate (EA), Methanol (ME), Aqueous Residue (AQ2) were compared, using suitable experimental animal models (writhing and formalin tests). Extracts were administered orally at 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1. The methanol extract of M. tomentosa which was most effective was investigated on thermal noxious stimuli (hot plate and tail immersion tests) and its anti-inflammatory properties were assessed against carrageenan-induced acute inflammation. The results showed that AQ1, EA, ME and AQ2 leaf extracts significantly reduced writhing responses induced by acetic acid in mice. The AQ1, ME and AQ2 extracts at the higher dose significantly (p<0.01) reduced the licking time at the first phase of formalin test by 57, 43 and 28%, respectively. During the second phase, all extracts except HEX significantly reduced (p<0.001) formalin-induced pain. The analgesic effects of ME extract (200 mg kg-1) of M. tomentosa leaves was higher compared to all extracts (p<0.05). The methanol extract also significantly (p<0.001) increased the reaction time in hot plate and tail immersion tests. The antinociceptive effects of plants extracts were partially reversed by naloxone (1 mg kg-1) in formalin, hot plate and tail immersion tests. Carrageenan-induced paw oedema was significantly inhibited (43%, at 5 h post dosing) by ME extract at 100 mg kg-1. These results suggest that leaves of M. tomentosa may possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The methanol extract might act at both on peripheral and central level. These effects may be partially mediated by opioid receptors.
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