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Pharmacologia Vol. 8 (1), 2017
Research Article
Toxicological Implication of Sub-chronic Administration of Aqueous Leaves Extract of Cochlospermum planchonii in Albino Rats
Fisayo Abraham Bamisaye , Abdulhakeem Olarewaju Sulyman , Emmanuel Oladipo Ajani and Victoria Aduke Alabi
Abstract: Background and Objective: Cochlospermum planchonii is used for various purposes such as food additive, dye, rope making and medicine for treatment of various ailments in Nigeria. The plant is consumed indiscriminately by users. This study aims to evaluate toxicological effects of aqueous leaves extract of Cochlospermum planchonii (C. planchonii) in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The qualitative phytochemical screening of aqueous leaves extract of C. planchonii was carried out to ascertain the bioactives present in the extract. Albino rats weighing between 200 and 224 g were grouped into four (A-D) consisting of ten rats each. Group A (control) orally received 1 mL of distilled water while groups B-D received 50, 100 and 200 mg kg–1 b.wt., of the extract, respectively for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, these experimental rats were sacrificed and their blood, liver and kidney were collected for toxicological studies. In addition, histopathological studies of liver and kidney of the rats were also carried out. Statistical analysis was done by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan multiple range test. Results: The aqueous leaves extract of C. planchonii contain alkaloids, cardenolides, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenolics, saponnins, terpenoids and tannins while antraquinones and steroids were not detected. The extract supports growth in a dose dependent manner with best growth shown in rats treated with the highest concentration (200 mg kg–1 b.wt.). In addition, the extract reduced the electrolyte concentrations while it increased bilirubin and blood creatinine concentrations in rats. Furthermore, histopathological studies of the liver and kidney of extract-treated rats revealed dissociation of hepatic cords in the hepatic parenchyma of the liver while few foci of nephrosis (coagulative tubular necrosis) were seen in their kidney at the end of the experiment. Conclusion: Aqueous leaves extract of C. planchonii may not be safe when consumed for long period of time, especially at high concentrations.
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